Thursday, October 7, 2010

Saving Techniques (Part 1): Optimization in Boiling Water Consumption

Here, I would like to write the partial of my paper of “Saving Techniques (Part 1): Optimization in Boiling Water Consumption” which has been submitted to IBS of University Technology Malaysia as follows:

Nowadays, the energy saving could be as only temporary solution for huge uncertainty in business throughout the world. In addition, one of the most crucial outcome of the 2010 G-20 Toronto Summit (June 26-27) was to decrease debt-GDP ratio among countries. The general concept of it is the saving of money and energy by the people throughout the world. Besides, as it was stated in my article of “Actually, what is the problem?” on Apr 17, 2009, a temporary solution for financial crisis is to distribute the inflation among the people around the world by using of Kelvin model. It means that the people will have to take an intensive concern on the saving techniques.
The consumption of boiling water could be examined in three sectors as follows:

1) In the public sector such as cooking, drinking
2) In Steam Generators as the equipments of utility in factories
3) In new projects such as Project Management Plan (PMP) to conduct data sheets in details engineering

In this paper, energy saving in the case of the boiling water consumption among the people throughout the world (the public sector) has been analyzed.

Literature Review:
According to Europe’s Energy Portal, there are 10 important methods for saving of the energy as follows:

1) Using from energy-efficient tools such as low consumption lamps
2) Interchanging to the producers of electricity who generate power electric from green energy resources instead of fossil fuels resources
3) Using of the public transportation for distances more than 10 km and bicycle for distances low than 10 km
4) To decrease of our thermostat by 4 to 5 degree Celsius in the period of the night and when we leave our home
5) To turn off all of instruments that we do not need to use
6) To insulate our home completely and effectively
7) Going to holiday by using of bus and train instead of our own car or airplane
8) To help forestation programs in which they concentrate on planting indigenous trees in tropical zones
9) Working at home by Internet instead of an office location (if it is possible)
10) Teaching and broadcasting the ideas and importance of energy saving to all of the people

Data Analysis and Discussion

In here, there is an example for energy saving in the field of boiling water consumption in the public sector as follows:

We drink tea or coffee in our home or office at least four times per day. Each cup of tea or coffee needs to about 250 cc (250gr) of boiling water where amount of energy consumption will be equal to 649KJ.

Amount of thermal energy for water 20 to 100 degree Celsius = 250gr * (100-20) * 4.186 = 83.7 KJ
Amount of thermal energy for boiling water = 250gr * 2261 = 565.3 KJ
Total thermal energy consumption for boiling of 250gr water = 83.7 + 565.3 = 649 KJ

The people usually fill their Kettle or Boiler full of water for each time of boiling water consumption. We assume that we decrease amount of water in our Kettle equal to 250gr (a cup) per person for each time using of boiling water (need to tea). In the result, we will save the thermal energy about 2600 KJ per capita per day.
What is the influence of this amount saved energy (2600KJ) in the world?
In Table (1), 39 countries, which have been collected, have the most effect on energy saving.




As we can see, the consumption of energy by developing countries is less than developed countries. In addition, some of developing countries such as China and India can play the important role in energy saving in the case of boiling water consumption because of their large population. One of the most crucial things to bear in mind is to increase energy saving among the countries with very high population but low energy consumption such as fewer developing countries.
Referring to Table (1), if we consider:

Pi = population of countries (2007)
Ei = percentage of energy saving by countries
TP = total population of the world in 2007
AE = average energy saving rate in the world by boiling water consumption

We will have:

AE = SUM Pi * Ei / TP and TP = 6625 millions

By using of above formula, we can calculate the average of energy saving rate (AE) throughout the world that it could be obtained by 39 countries
According to above mentioned, AE is calculated approximately equal to 2.3%.

Recommendation

How can we save the energy in our home or office?
It is very simple. It could be done by scaling. We should have an estimate of cups number of tea or coffee that we would like to serve in each time. For instance, if we want to drink 2 cups of tea for 4 people, we should scale 8 cups of water and put it into our Kettle or Boiler.

What is the Influence of energy saving by the people on environment and business in the world?
International Energy Outlook 2010 (IEO) stated that total world energy consumption rises by an average annual 1.4% from 2007 to 2035. If we assume only 61% population of these 39 countries care about energy saving on the case of boiling water, AE can be calculated just equal to 1.4%. It proves that this method as well as works.

The outline of next topic for this article is as follows:

Topic: Efficiency of Industrial Boiler System


• Introduction

 Why should we increase the efficiency of steam generators?

 How can we increase the efficiency of industrial Boiler systems?


• Literature Review

 The cost of steam vs. the cost of electric power
 What is the percentage of electricity generated by the steam in whole of the world?

 The parameters which are affecting on Boiler efficiency


• Data Analysis and Discussion

 Efficiency of boiler by combustion, thermal, fuel to fluid
 The types of Air pre-heater (APH)
 Analysis of the influence APH on Boiler efficiency

• Recommendation
 To present the ways for optimizing of the volume and the temperature of outlet flue gas by using of Rotary Air Pre-Heater (RAPH)
 A new idea for increasing of efficiency in RAPH
 The cost of new manufacturing for RAPH
 The payback period for new model of RAPH
• Conclusion
 The Energy saving as the best target of this paper
 Applications of new model of RAPH in other industries such as Heat exchangers, Space industry

If you have any recommendation, please write your comments before the submission of the paper.
Thanks
Reza